Push Down Automata, PDA, are a way to represent the language class called Context Free Languages, CFL, covered above. By themselves PDA's are not very important but the hierarchy of Finite State Machines with corresponding Regular Languages, PDA's with corresponding CFL's and Turing Machines with corresponding Recursively Enumerable Sets (Languages), is an important concept. The definition of a Push Down Automata is: M = (Q, Sigma, Gamma, delta, q0, Z0, F) where Q = a finite set of states including q0 Sigma = a finite alphabet of input symbols (on the input tape) Gamma = a finite set of push down stack symbols including Z0 delta = a group of nondeterministic transitions mapping Q x (Sigma union {epsilon}) x Gamma to finite sets of Q x Gamma star q0 = the initial state, an element of Q, possibly the only state Z0 = the initial stack contents, an element of gamma, possibly the only stack symbol F = the set of final, accepting, states but may be empty for a PDA "accepting on an empty stack" Unlike finite automata, the delta is not presented in tabular form. The table would be too wide. Delta is a list of, nondeterministic, transitions of the form: delta(q,a,A) = { (qi,gammai), (qj,gammaj), ...} where q is the current state, a is the input tape symbol being read, an element of Sigma union {epsilon} A is the top of the stack being read, The ordered pairs (q sub i, gamma sub i) are respectively the next state and the string of symbols to be written onto the stack. The machine is nondeterministic, meaning that all the pairs are executed causing a branching tree of PDA configurations. Just like the branching tree for nondeterministic finite automata except additional copies of the pushdown stack are also created at each branch. The operation of the PDA is to begin in state q0, read the symbol on the input tape or read epsilon. If a symbol is read, the read head moves to the right and can never reverse to read that symbol again. The top of the stack is read by popping off the symbol. Now, having a state, an input symbol and a stack symbol a delta transition is performed. If there is no delta transition defined with these three values the machine halts. If there is a delta transition with the (q,a,A) then all pairs of (state,gamma) are performed. The gamma represents a sequence of push down stack symbols and are pushed right to left onto the stack. If gamma is epsilon, no symbols are pushed onto the stack. Then the machine goes to the next state, q. When the machine halts a decision is made to accept or reject the input. If the last, rightmost, input symbol has not been read then reject. If the machine is in a final state accept. If the set of final states is empty, Phi, and the only symbol on the stack is Z0, then accept. (This is the "accept on empty stack" case) Now, using pictures we show the machines for FSM, PDA and TM +-------------------------+----------------- DFA, NFA, NFA epsilon | input string | accepts Regular Languages +-------------------------+----------------- ^ read, move right | | +-----+ | | |--> accept +--+ FSM | M = ( Q, Sigma, delta, q0, F) | |--> reject +-----+ +-------------------------+----------------- Push Down Automata | input string |Z0 stack accepts Context Free Languages +-------------------------+----------------- ^ read, move right ^ read and write (push and pop) | | +-----------------------+ | +-----+ | | |--> accept +--+ FSM | M = ( Q, Sigma, Gamma, delta, q0, Z0, F) | |--> reject +-----+ +-------------------------+----------------- Turing Machine | input string |BBBBBBBB ... accepts Recursively Enumerable +-------------------------+----------------- Languages ^ read and write, move left and right | | +-----+ | | |--> accept +--+ FSM | M = ( Q, Sigma, Gamma, delta, q0, B, F) | |--> reject +-----+ An example of a language that requires the PDA to be a NPDA, Nondeterministic Push Down Automata, is L = { w wr | w in Sigma and wr is w written backwards } // wwr.npda code an NPDA for: // language { w wr | wr is string w in reverse order w = {0, 1} } // CGF S -> 00 # strict form, must have even length // S -> 11 // S -> 0S0 // S -> 1S1 // // remember, nondeterministic, do all applicable transitions in parallel // create multiple stacks as needed, some of the parallel may die // // NPDA = (Q, sigma, gamma, delta, Q0, Z0, F) // Q = {q0, q1, q2} states // sigma = {0, 1} input tape symbols (#e is empty string, epsilon) // gamma = {0, 1, Z} stack symbols // delta = {(Q x sigma x gamma_pop) to (Q x gamma_push) ... // nondeterministic transitions // Q0 = q0 starting state // Z0 = Z starting stack symbol // F = {q2} final state start q0 final q2 stack Z // saves typing Z0, initially on stack // state, input-read, top-of-stack-popped, go-to-state, push-on-stack q0 0 Z q0 0Z // first 6 just push input onto stack q0 1 Z q0 1Z q0 0 0 q0 00 q0 0 1 q0 01 q0 1 0 q0 10 q0 1 1 q0 11 q0 #e Z q1 Z // these 3 keep trying to find middle, most die q0 #e 0 q1 0 // tried after every input symbol q0 #e 1 q1 1 q1 0 0 q1 #e // matching input to stack, has popped stack, no push q1 1 1 q1 #e q1 #e Z q2 Z // accept, done enddef tape 110001100011 // accept, w = 110001 tape 00000 // reject, odd number of input characters

## Monday, 24 June 2013

### Push Down Automata, PDA, NPDA

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