Sunday, 3 November 2013


Memory allocation operator new :

T *p; //declare p as a pointer
p= new T // p is the address of Memory for data type T
int *ptr1; // size of int is 2
long *ptr2; // size of long is 4
ptr1= new int;
ptr2= new long;

by default, the content in memory have no initial value. If such a value is desired, it must be supplied as a parameter when the operator is used:

p=new T(value);
ptr2= new long(1000000)

Dynamic array allocation :
    p=new T [ n] ; // allocate an array of n items of type T
    long *p;
    p=new long [ 50] // allocate an array of 50 long integers
       if (p==NULL)
       cerr<< "Memory allocation error!<< endl;
    exit(1); // terminate the program

The memory deallocation operator delete:

T *.p, *q; // p and q are pointers to type T
p=new T; // points to a single item
q new T[ n] ; //points to an array of elements
delete p; // deallocates the variable pointed by p
delete [ ] q; // deallocates the entire array pointed by q

Allocation of object data :


template <class T>
class DynamicClass
{ private:
// variable of type T and a pointer to data of type T
T member1;
T *member2;

//constructor with parameters to initialize member data
DynamicClass(const T &m1, const T &m2)
// copy constructor : create a copy of the input object
DynamicClass(const DynamicClass<T> & obj)
// some methods...
//assignment operator
DynamicClass<T> operator=(const DynamicClass<T> rhs)
~ DynamicClass(void)

// class implementation
//constructor with parameters to initialize member data
DynamicClass<T>::DynamicClass(const T &m1, const T &m2)
// parameter m1 initializes static member
//allocate dynamic memory and initialize it with value m2
member2=new T(m2)
cout << "Constructor:"<<member1<<'/'<<*member2<<endl;

Example: The following statements define a static variable staticObj and a pointer variable dynamicObj.The static Obj has parameters 1 and 100 that initialize the data members:

//Dynamic Class object
DynamicClass<int> staticObj(1,100)

In the following, the object DynamicObj points to an object created by the new operator. Parameters 2 and 200 are supplied as parameters to the constructor:

//pointer variable
DynamicClass<int> *DynamicObj;
//allocate an object
DynamicObj=new DynamicClass<int>(2,200)

Running the program results in;

Constructor: 1/100
Constructor: 2/200

Deallocation Object Data: The Destructor

Consider the function F that creates a DynamicClass object having integer data
    void DestroyDemo(int m1,int m2)
   {DynamicClass<int> obj(m1,m2);


Upon return from DestroyDemo obj is destroyed; however the process does not deallocate the dynamic memory associated with the object:

Dynamic data still remains in the system memory. For effective memory management, we need to deallocate the dynamic data within the object at the same time the object being destroyed. We need to reverse the action of the constructor, which originally allocated the dynamic data. The C++ language provides a member function, called the destructor, which is called by the compiler when an object is destroyed. For DynamicClass, the destructor has the declaration:

~ DynamicClass(void);

The character "~ " represents "complement", so ~ DynamicClass is the complement of a constructor. A destructor never has a parameter or a return type. For our sample class, the destructor is responsible to deallocate the dynamic data for member2.

// destructor: deallocates memory allocated by the constructor
template <class T>
DynamicClass<T>:~ DynamicClass(void);
delete member2;

The destructor is called whenever an object is deleted. When a program terminates, all global objects or objects declared in the main program are destroyed. For local objects created within a block, the destructor is called when the program exits the block.

Example :

void DestroyDemo(int m1, int m2)
{DynamicClass<int> Obj(m1,m2) ¬--------------- Constructor for Obj(3,300)
¬------------------------------------- Destructor for Obj
void main(void)
{DynamicClass<int> Obj1(1,100), *Obj2; ¬--------- Constructor for Obj1(1,100)
Obj2=new DynamicClass<int>(2,200); ¬------------ Constructor for *Obj2(2,200)
delete Obj2; ¬------------------------------- Destructor for Obj2
¬-------------------------------------- Destructor for Obj1

running the program results in the output:

Constructor: 1/100
Constructor: 2/200
Constructor: 3/300
Destructor: 3/300
Destructor: 2/200
Destructor: 1/100

Assignment and initialization:
Assignment and initialization are basic operation that apply to any object. The assignment Y=X causes a bitwisecopy of the data from object X to the data in object Y. Initialization creates a new object that is a copy of another object. The operations are illustrated with objects X and Y.

// initialization
DynamicClass X(20,50), Y=X;
//creates DynamicClass objects X and Y
// data in Y is initialized by data in X
// assignment
//data in Y is overwritten by data in X

Special consideration must be used with dynamic memory so that unintended errors are not created. We must create new methods that handle object assignment and initialization.

Assignment Issues:

The assignment statement of B=A causes the data in A to be copied to B

member1 of B=member1 of A //copies static data from A to B
member2 of B=member2 of A //copies pointer from A to B

    void F(void)
    {DynamicClass<int> A(2,3), B(7,9);
After execution of DynamicClass<int> A(2,3), B(7,9);

 After execution of B=A we have;

although it was desired;

Solution is Overloading the assignment operator...

    // Overloaded assignment operator = returns a reference to the current object
    template <class T>
    DynamicClass<T>& operator= (const DynamicClass <T>& rhs)
    {//copy static data member from rhs to the current object
    // content of the dynamic memory must be same as that rhs
       cout <<"Assignment Operator: "<<member1<<'/'<<*member2<<endl
    return *this;
    //reserved word this is used to return a reference to the current object

Initialization Issues:

Object initialization is an operation that creates a new object that is a copy of another object. Like assignment, when the object has dynamic data, the operation requires a specific member function,called the copy constructor.

DynamicClass<int> A(3,5), B=A; //initialize object B with A

The declaration of A creates an object B whose initial data are member1=3 and *member2=5. The declaration of creates an object with two data members that are then structured to store the same data values found in A.
In addition to performing initialization when declaring objects, initialization also occurs when passing an object as a value parameter in a function. For instance, assume function F has a value parameter X of type DynamicClass<int>.

DynamicClass<int> F(DynamicClass<int> X) // value parameter
{DynamicClass<int> obj;
return obj

When calling block uses object A as the actual parameter, the local object X is created by copying A:

DynamicClass<int> A(3,5), B(0,0); //declare objects
B=F(A) //call F by copying A to X

When the return is made from F, a copy of obj is made, the destructor for the local object X and obj are called, and the copy of obj is returned as the value of the function

Creating a copy constructor:

In order to properly handle classes that allocate dynamic memory, C++ provides the copy constructor to allocate dynamic memory for the new object and initialize its data values
The copy constructor is a member function that is declared with the class name and a single parameter. Because it is a constructor, it does not have a return value

//copy constructor: initialize new object to have the same data as obj.
template <class T>
DynamicClass<T>:: DynamicClass(const DynamicClass<T>& obj)
{// copy static data member from obj to current object
//allocate dynamic memory and initialize it with value *obj.member2
member2=new T(*.member2);
cout<<"Copy Constructor:"<<member1<<'/'<<member2<<endl;

If a class has a copy constructor, it is used by the compiler whenever it needs to perform initialization. The copy constructor is used only when an object is created.
Despite their similarity, assignment and initialization are clearly different operations. Assignment is done when the object on the left-handside already exists. In the case of initialization, a new object is created by copying data from an existing object.
The parameter in a copy constructor must be passed by reference. The consequence of failing to do so may result in catastrophic effects if it is not recognized by the compiler. Assume we declare the copy constructor

DynamicClass(DynamicClass<T> X)

The copy constructor is called whenever a function parameter is specified as call by value. In the copy constructor, assume object A is passed to the parameter X by value

DynamicClass(DynamicClass <T>X)

Since we pass A to X by value, the copy constructor must be called to handle the copying of A to X. This call in turn needs the copy constructor, and we have an infinite chain of copy constructor calls. Fortunately, this potential trouble is caught by the compiler, which specifies that the parameter must be passed by reference. In additiion, the reference parameter X should be declared constant, since we certainly do not want to modify the object we are copying.
    # include <iostream.h>
    # include "dynamic.h"
    template <class T>
       DynamicClass<int> Demo(DynamicClass<T> one, DynamicClass<T>& two, T m)
    { DynamicClass<T> obj(m,m);
       return obj;
    void main()
    { DynamicClass<int> A(3,5), B=A, C(0,0);


Running the program results in;

Constructor: 3/5 // construct A
Copy Constructor: 3/5 // construct B
Constructor: 0/0 // construct C
Copy Constructor: 3/5 // construct one
Constructor: 5/5 // construct obj
Copy Constructor: 5/5 // construct return object for Demo
Destructor: 5/5 // destruct obj upon return
Destructor: 3/5 // destruct A upon return
Assignment Operator: 5/5 // assign return object of Demo to C
Destructor: 5/5 // destruct return object of demo
Destructor: 5/5 // destruct C
Destructor: 3/5 // destruct B
Destructor: 3/5 // destruct A

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